воскресенье, 7 января 2018 г.

Stages of a comet catastrophe

Andrei Stepanenko

James Kennett from The University of California in Santa Barbara almost proved that the last glaciation is connected with the fall of a meteorite (1). I, basing on the work by A. P. Nevsky (2), rephrase the question: a number of closely connected natural and even historical phenomena can be only explained by one general source - close passing of a meteoric object. We consider these phenomena in turn and in interrelations.

The northern border of the Pleistocene fauna area is clearly visible.

Fig. 1. The area of mammoths distribution (3)

It is an ellipse with the centre to the south-west of Greenland.

Fig. 2. Northern area of mammoths distribution (4)

The elliptical form is explainable by catastrophic character of Hudson bay formation (5) - paleontologic remains are most likely washed off, and in practice the area should form a circle with the centre in Greenland. It is necessary to underline that in the Bering Land Bridge to the east of Taimyr and to the south of the ellipse (nowadays - sunk shelf) mammoths prospered (6). On the maps below, even they are smaller, we see the same –the centre is in Greenland.
Focal finds of mammoths remains in Greenland are important, that can be explained only by catastrophic transfer.

Fig. 3. The area of mammoths distribution considering The Bering Land Bridge (6)

On a map of soil zones of Northern hemisphere of V. Dokuchayev for 1899 (7) arctic and wood zones each consists of two round zones with different centres: in the pole area and in Greenland. That is, we see two groups of the latitude zones orientated on a different pole position.

Fig. 4. Doubling of soil zones of Northern hemisphere

Latitude orientation of the Russian black earth on the map created by V. Dokuchayev in 1883 (8), has orientation to the pole in Greenland. The belt has the end in North-West Africa.

Fig. 5. Latitude orientation of black earth

On modern maps (9) soils in Europe and the North America also have latitude orientation to the pole in Greenland.

Fig. 6. Latitude orientation of soils to the pole in Greenland

As for soils formation some time is required, it is possible to assert that latitude orientation of soils in Northern hemisphere has relic character and reflects the previous geographical pole position.
Good correlation of the Pleistocene fauna area with relic orientation of soils indicates high probability of connection of Pleistocene fauna destruction with a pole shift to its present position. Nowadays permafrost is the main relict suitable for the analysis, remained to us from that epoch.

The permafrost zone has a drop shape with a sharp end in Hudson Bay and an obtuse one - in Siberia. The symmetry axis passes through the mouth of the Lena river well-known for valuable finds of the Pleistocene epoch and most significant in the north salinization of sedimentary rocks (10). The drop center lies on one line with the pole and the centre of Greenland, to which, as if to the pole, the northern border of the area of mammoths habitation and, at least, three different soil zones are orientated.

Fig. 7. Permafrost zone (11)

It is necessary to notice that the drop is limited by oceans in width, and by continents in length.

The sunk shelves counters also have the same orientation; that is the Bering Land Bridge that perished practically simultaneously with the mammoth fauna.

Fig. 8. Outline of shelves borders

My conclusion the following: the act of the Bering Land Bridge submergence, the act of permafrost emergence and the act of pole shift to which soil zones and mammoths have been orientated, have the same original cause. But this original cause is absolutely catastrophic.

The permafrost, except for the high-mountain zone, exists only in Northern hemisphere which points out the external in relation to the planet reason of its occurrence. The meteoric body can be this reason. If you look closer at the dark zone (in a legend - a continuous permafrost) you can clearly see that the drop, in practice, is asymmetrical: bisectors between permafrost borders on the left and on the right do not coincide. We see a curvilinear trajectory.

Fig. 9. Curvature of outlines of a permafrost

Such trajectory could appear because of a planet rotation during the contact with something flying rectilinearly. The beginning of the development of the permafrost zone in Canada is horizontal, and the end of the development in Transbaikalia is at 22° angle to the input line. That is, during the propagation time of a conventional meteoric body the Earth turned for 55.3° and made 15.4% of its diurnal revolution. It is approximately 3.7 hours.

Rough estimate of the relative body speed:
Let's assume that this is a meteoric body, and estimate its speed.
12756 km (diameter of the Earth): 3.7 hours = 3460 km/hours or 0.96 km/s. It is 10 times less than the second space speed (11 km/s); the meteoric body with such speed would fall, and the further existence of the Earth, considering the sizes of the permafrost stain, would be problematic. Probably, the planet touched a continuous meteor shower that is why it will be impossible to estimate the speed any more.

Contact time:
The contact lasted 3.7 hours. It is not much, in 1833 the planet went under the meteor shower during 9 hours (12). Here much depends on the entry corner into the flow.

Intensity of the effect:
In 1833, frequency of meteorites falling made 12-26 thousand per hour, and in 1946 - 21-30 thousand per hour (13). However, astronomers fixed meteor showers, which experience wave processes, that is, they are dense enough to react as a single whole. To touch it means practically to appear under a sandpaper.

In a place of a hypothetical exit of the Earth from a dangerous zone, the radius of effect is more, that effect has two reasons:
- Effect of the exposure accumulation;
- Development of the effect with the increase of its intensity in time (for example, flux density or approach with its more dense part).


The first factor: direct falling of meteoric bodies on the Earth. In Hudson bay there is a roundish structure in diameter of 433 kilometres, probably, it is a part of the considered incident. But, as a whole, the estimation in the permafrost zone are complicated. Judging by the map, craters are covered by the alluvial deposits, which appeared during the incident - just in the freezing zone. Parts of this region are well occupied, other parts are perfectly well studied by geologists, and that is, small number of fixings is not the result of researches weakness.

Fig. 10. The map of fixed impact structures position (14)

The second factor: the vacuum channel formed behind the bodies, going on supersonic speeds. The speed of meteor showers is usually between 11 and 72 km/s, that is, supersonic.

Example: For a needle 1mm in diameter flying with speed 30km/sec (let’s also approximate sound speed to 300m/sec) the diameter of such a discharging zone will be not less than 10 sm, there will be vacuum. The length of such a vacuum channel will be equal to half of diameter of the discharging zone multiplied by the relation of the object speed to sound speed and makes not less than 5 metres (15).

Fig. 11. A body flying with supersonic speed

For a meteorite with the same speed only 30 metres in diameter, the diameter of the discharging  zone is not less than 30 km, and the length of the vacuum channel is 15 thousand kilometres, that is more than the Earth diameter (12.74 thousand in km)

At a distance of 11-50 km from the surface of the Earth the stratosphere is situated, that is, the vacuum channel of a 30-metre meteorite passing through the stratosphere can touch the surface.

We consider a meteor shower as billions of bodies, rather small moving on different altitude, but with close speed. That is, the vacuum channel created by them will be multi-barreled.

The most obvious consequences of formation of such a channel are as follows: a shock wave on an input, a number of periodic waves and a shock wave at the channel collapse. But the main consequence is focal falling of the atmospheric pressure.

The third factor: the electrical and electromagnetic effect of a meteor shower on the Earth. Here it is reasonable to refer to the published in 1978 by A.P. Nevskiy in “The Astronomical bulletin” (volume 12, № 4) article “The phenomenon of a positively stabilized electrical charge and the effect of electric discharge explosion of large meteoritic bodies flying in the atmosphere of planets” (2).

* Nevskiy Alexander Platonovich (1935-2005), Cand. Sc. (Physics and Mathematics). The leading research assistant, FGUP CNNIIMash, the Russian Aerospace Agency

The theory by A.P. Nevskiy was born as a result of a struggle against plasma shielding of radio waves of going down space vehicles, so it is based on extremely particular practice. Upon all secrets of the Tungus meteorite have been opened by the Soviet space science in 1963.

The electrical dipole is formed in a comet with a condensed positive charge on the surface and a diffused negative charge in a plasma tail. The positive charge stabilizes and reaches significant value. At close approach between the comet and the Earth there is a huge potential difference, which can lead to air layer breakdown. At standard condition the super-power multichannel charge starts already with altitude of 25 kilometres.
Prebreakdown electrical fields induce electrostatic levitation, which explains the observed in practice phenomena of rise in the air of large objects (trees, yurtas, soil sites on hills). The most powerful light flash arises, and the areas with moist soil  induce corona discharge.
Channels of breakdown are hundred thousands in number, hard x-ray, and also - as the result of reaction of deuterium nuclear fusion - a neutron radiation appear.
Electric discharge high-altitude explosion leads to destruction of a meteorite with the transition of some of its part in a vaporous and dust conditions. The meteorite blows up from an underside, and therefore it or its large debris receive a high-power impulse in the direction from the Earth surface.
There are three shock waves. The first shock wave is energy release product in a lightning column. The second - explosive destruction of the body. The third - a ballistic wave from supersonic intrusion of the body into the atmosphere.
Current spreading along water-bearing layers heats up water up to formation of boiling reservoirs and huge geysers.

Direct hit of meteoric bodies to the Earth is not considered in this article. The last two factors are quite enough for the explanation of all set of considered questions.

We have already came to the conclusion that in our case not a separate body, but a meteor shower passed the planet, that introduces some nuances.

The first shock wave from discharge is multiple and does not stop all time during the contact – 3.7 hours. The second shock wave is also multiple and happens simultaneously with the first: billions of small bodies entering the atmospheric serially blow up below. It lasts 3.7 hours as well. The third shock wave, ballistic, is some minutes late, and it is important.

The discharge makes the Earth as a cathode, and a meteor shower as an anode. The Earth-cathode loses electrons in the field of the contact (Arctic zones), elements in both the ocean and subsurface are ionized - in large quantities and quickly. Ionization reaction is endothermic (16); it goes with heat removal on all body of rock and thicknesses of the ocean in the discharge zone. The second prevalent element on the Earth after oxygen - hydrogen - is the most perspective for mass ionization.
Ionized hydrogen becomes “proton gas” with the highest permeability. Down to 1.5 km depth there goes endothermic reaction of restoration by hydrogen of oxides (metals, in particular). Ore development arises, and rocks freeze through.
In layers of mineralized waters electrolysis takes place - endothermic process as well.
These three processes, in the core, also form permafrost, including strongly abyssal one, for example, in Poland and the Czech Republic (17; 18; 19).

The water-bearing layers of subsurface coming into the ocean, appear as a tray with an electrolyte, where the edge coming into the ocean is an anode that is why it is warmed up (Anodic electrolytic heating). Layers of gas hydrates of the coastal zone, contacting to the warmed up water-bearing layers, break up exploding with heat removal (57).
As the ocean is an electrolyte helping in transferring the charge, it is necessary to expect some chain reaction of heating and decay of gas hydrates along the edges of all continents.
The released hydrocarbons have volume, which 160-180 times exceeds initial gas hydrate, so marine water foams.
The proceeding electric discharge initiates the process of electrocracking of the natural gas released from hydrates (20) with formation of one acetylene volume and about three volumes of hydrogen. The gaseous mass volume is quadrupled.
Acetylene rapidly and in large quantities breaks up to carbon and hydrogen.

Decay of products of decay of gas hydrates prevents methane emission into the atmosphere, appearance of greenhouse effect and extinction in scales of the Permian–Triassic extinction event.

Water and gases rising from the bottom to the surface, get into the zone with much smaller pressure that causes deep cooling. Water will be transformed in crystals of ice and will increase 9% in volume. The weight density will be reduced, and mobility raises. The temperature of the released gases will be reduced also. Pressure decrease finishes the decay of those fragments of gas hydrates that have not broken up as a result of electric discharge.

As soon as products of the gas hydrates decay, which increased in volume in 600-700 times, begin to rise upwards, their place will be occupied with dense and heavy waters from the nearest areas. There will be near-bottom positive set-up with the movement direction from the centre of the Arctic Ocean to the coastline.

The ballistic shock wave comes, when electrochemical processes are already launched. The blow tears off soil (probably, already weakened by electrochemical processes) in Canada and Siberia and extrudes already sated with gases and ice crystals water of the Arctic Ocean. The suspension of water, ice, soil particles and gases, partially ionized, is formed in the atmosphere.
In those areas where hydrogen and oxygen proportions are optimum, detonation takes place. It is necessary to expect that the detonation occurs already over Canada, and the suspension will mainly be thrown out on the motion of the ballistic wave - to Siberia.
New formed gases will detonate in some places, in some places they blow up, and in some places they will simply burn, and the similar set of events will repeat only in the end of the process of the meteor shower passing.

During all 3.7 hours of the contact, the flow carries periodic shock waves specific for a body moving with supersonic speed, beating on the laid water-soil mix. As the Earth turns round, the direction of the periodic waves will displace to the east.

Thrown out on the territory of Siberia the suspension is partially ionised and strongly cooled. Moreover, because of regular pressure decrease (since pressure decrease in the ocean and up to the detonation end) periodic process of sublimation occurs, at which even those substances are sublimated that are generally nonvolatile (59). But the process of electric discharge, that means, ionisation, proceeds, and the suspension cools down even more strongly. The suspension should become loose, sated with gas vials, soil dust, vapor and ice crystals, and movable as avalanche; it will imitate glaciation with shields thickness to 4 km.
The mixture is really suitable for fast freezing of mammoths and introduces its contribution to the permafrost formation.

(1) The layer of the sated carbon described by James Kenneth could result from local deficit of oxygen. Hydrogen binds to oxygen more actively, and carbon, which remained after the decay of gas hydrates, did not find an element to react with and deposited as it is - in its pure state.

Deposits of gas hydrates are located along the edges of continents, so that is their source.

Fig. 12. Deposition of gas hydrates (21)

The reason of their occurrence can be that pressure in the sea and in subsurface  on the same depth 2-2.5 times differs, so natural gases of the continent are extruded in the sea direction, as paste from a tube. The sea already has conditions suitable for the formation of gas hydrates from the gas. Where exactly they lay down is a question of presence or absence of flows.
And here in those places where between deposits of gas hydrates of a bottom and their supplying natural gas of subsurface  there was a physical communication, process electrocracking natural gases has been obliged to last from the sea deep into subsurface  and to proceed already in gas deposits.
Direct (not from the coastal line) discharge effect onto deposits of natural gases and gas hydrates of subsurface is also probable. Gases start to decay with heat removal, and the further process is standard.

Unlike sea bottom conditions, natural gas of subsurface has no space to release. As a result of electric discharge hydrogen, as the most mobile element, is torn off, and scraps of molecules form binds which contain much less of hydrogen, that is, oil alcans and alcalens.
It is reasonable to expect that in rocks with the best conductivity synthesis went more actively. In view of value extremity of discharge process, oil synthesis is obliged to attenuate moving from edges of the continents to the centre.
Hydrocarbons are not visible in the mountains where primary layers of underground brines are destroyed. And, on the contrary, the plain from the Yamal to the Caspian Sea both has oil available, and the sunk surface as the result of the synthesis.

Depth of the permafrost increases as it is becomes closer to shelves. On edges of the continents all reactions proceeded most intensively, and in view of attenuating character of the processes (moving to the centre of the continents), went most complete.

Shelves sank everywhere, and the permafrost is only in subpolar zones. These are zones distinguishes from equatorial zones in intensity of the electromagnetic field. The electric discharge in these zones should appear more strongly.

Oil density is more than two times higher the density of liquid natural gas, that is, oil synthesis should be accompanied by layer reduction in its volume and crust sinking. As a result, the crust partially sank - the closer to the edges continents it was, the deeper it sank - and became a shelf. The thickness of oil layers is estimated 1100-1200 metres in some places, and if they were formed this way, the crust sank for comparable depth, it possibly happened more than once.
Methahydrates decay of the cryolithic zone subsurface is possible. In case of synthesis of oil from gas, methahydrates layers lose about 11 % in volume. As a result, cavities start to be formed, focal pressure decrease arises, and decay of gas hydrates of subsurface will accept the character of a chain reaction. Present layers of gas hydrates have 400-800 metres thickness, and would give 44-88 metres crust shrink in case of such a scenario.
The crust sink must have caused its cracking with gases release and even stronger cooling in the emission zone.

Body flight at supersonic speed creates behind it a vacuum channel. In our case it is a huge channel consisting of billions of small channels, left by meteoric bodies of this flow. After the Earth exit from a meteor shower this channel in the Earth atmosphere must collapse (56) and cause the fourth shock wave, somehow similar to the previous ballistic wave. However, the blow direction will go 22 ° to the east of the entrance line and upwards - following the disappearing vacuum channel.
The blow will lift up some part of the ocean water into the atmosphere and tear away part of the already settled snow-soil bulk, and in the course of subsidence this bulk will clearly lag behind the Earth rotation, that is, it will displace to the West with speed from 500 km an hour and even lower.

It is very important, as possible to check. Traces of three types of impact ballistic waves must be found in Siberia:
- The first, coinciding with the detonating gas detonation, pressure-exerting top-down wave with the direction from Hudson Bay to the Yamal;
- The second type - periodic waves going with 22 ° shift in west-to-east direction, from the Yamal to the Lena;
- The third is a squeezing one with a direction to the mouth of Lena with constant and high-power shift of water-soil suspension to the West (22). It was the third wave type, which left the clearest tracks – ridge-hollow complexes.

Fig. 13. Ridge-hollow complexes (23)

The dispersion of a water-soil suspension, for example, with separation of marine salt from water, is inevitable. The suspension will set depending on density of particles and current direction of air flows. Probably, some salt deposits were formed that way.

The suspension moves irrespectively of the Earth rotation. Being soaked up to the place of the vacuum channel, the mix behaves like a car, which has come at the crossroads across traffic. Even falling on the ground, it first does not rotate together with a planet that is why it is shifted to the west. In Asia the mix moves towards the Caspian Sea, and then along the Manych - to the Black Sea (this forms in the north of the sea an ice layer with 30 pecha thickness (24), and in America the mix goes to Great Lakes where it is washed down into the the Great Basin in Nevada) (Pleistocene  lake). It is interesting to note that Nevada and Mangyshlak are located at one latitude and opposite longitudes that shows identical force of the blow and rotary symmetry of the motion.

Fig. 14., a Fig. 15. An identical landscape in Nevada and on the Mangyshlak Peninsula (25; 26)

Total absence of marine mammals and fish in permafrost layers is important, though crumpled remains of marine fauna are regularly found in coal. It seems that the electric discharge caused in oceanic flora and fauna the phenomenon similar to IV degree electrical shock: ionised hydrogen migrates, and carbon, entirely deprived of organics, remains. The hydrogen which was torn off from molecules copiously is met in deposits of oil, coal and combustible shale, notably complicating exploration.
The thrown into the atmosphere charred marine fauna and flora remains were carried by the hurricane differently from sand, ice or water, so they landed on the ground according to relative density, compactly.
The mammoths who were not contacting to the oceanic water electrolyte, avoided charring.

Some part of meteoric material and water-soil suspension gets into the stratosphere, then - in dominating airflows and drops in different latitudes depending on relative density.

There is only one question in, whether all shelves on the Earth sank synchronously. If yes, freezing in tropics is a part of this freezing, which appeared on almost the same, but not identical scenario. If not, the freezing in tropics occurred during a similar, but different incident.

Settled strongly cooled water-soil mix forms resemblance of a glacial shield, moreover, strictly in accordance with science conclusions:
- The freezing appears rapidly, less, than in half a year (27);
- It disappears quickly as it is washed away by high waters in several decades;
- It disappears synchronously with the destruction mammoth fauna;
- It spares southern Pleistocene fauna, and the part of Russia, which is populated nowadays;
- It carries uphill boulders in some places that presents difficulties for the current model;
- It is capable to move or not to move depending on the distribution of flows;
- Explains impossible Pleistocene temperatures (25°C below the present ones that equalizes the temperatures with Antarctic and excludes prosperity of herbivorous Pleistocene fauna), calculated on an isotope structure (28), - in this bulk there are these isotopes typical for low temperatures;
- Forms moraines;
- It rolls smooth the boulders with a method of fast pilling of ledges on the surface of stones overcooled in places to space values (inside the stone there can be minus 5°C, and outside - minus 200°C). It is probably the source of appearance of ideally round boulders, which are obviously not concretions;
- In some places (presumably, at the Mangyshlak) it forms resemblance of concretions, which are not concretions in fact, - as a multilayered snowball or a snow-ice sphere in a surf band at the Yamal (60);
- It polishes rocky massive of northern latitudes;
- It spares the fauna of tropics (Snowball Earth situation) when there are similar processes: the overcooled bulk kills more selectively, than the general cold snap;
- It explains both sudden growth of glaciers, and their fast degradation;
- It creates alluvial fast thawing islands near floodplains of the largest rivers;
- It carries wood over all Arctic basin where it is found now;
- It forms the type of structure of cryosolic cells that exists now, and it quickly (29).

Two basic additions to the existing theories:
- The thickness of the ice shield up to 4 kilometres is not required;
- Long-term character of freezing is not required; all its consequences are formed notably faster.

Maps of freezing, the description of the glacier behaviour, as well as all data confirmed by field researches, remain resolute.

2-4 thousand years deviations in estimations at age determination of large geological processes are quite usual. In our case, during one epoch, which is more often dated as the period 8200 years ago, there happened a variety of mostly important processes formally not connected among themselves:

- The underwater landslip of Sturegga promoted formation of Hudson Bay;
- The underwater landslip of Sturegga created a tsunami on the territory of Doggerland;
- Flooding of Doggerland for 40-100 metres;
- Sinking of Kattegat Straits and flooding of the Baltic lake with marine water;
- A stop of the Gulf Stream flow;
- An overflow of water of the Caspian Sea through the Manych to the Black Sea;
- The break of the Bosporus and an overflow of marine water from the Mediterranean Sea to the Black Sea;
- Flooding of The Bering Land Bridge , nowadays an arctic shelf;
- Flooding of Sundaland - shelves near Australia and New Guinea;
- End of last Ice Age;
-  Destruction of Indians of Clovis culture still hunting mastodons;
-  Destruction of some part of the Pleistocene northern hemisphere fauna;
-  Destruction of some part of the Pleistocene  southern hemisphere fauna.

Now, when we already saw the correlation of the maps of soils and the mammoths area, it is possible to add and the shift of geographical poles.

According to the offered hypothesis, all these processes have one source, however transgressions and regresses of the seas occur because of various reasons - depending on the process stage.

The first type of flooding: catastrophic filling in water-snow bulk of the future Khvalynsky sea basin (to the Balkhash Lake) and The Great Basin (the Pleistocene Lake) in Nevada. The process is aggravated with the residual increase in speed of marine water circulation in the Arctic Basin because of the electromagnetic effect of the meteor shower (58) and the increase in tidal effects according to Jusup Hizirov (30).

The second type of flooding: (transgressions of seas) occurs because of shelves sinking.

Digression. Consequences of crust sinking
Crust sinking and the flooding of the shelves, which has been expressed especially noticeably in northern hemisphere with a large land area, displaces the planet gravity centre.
The shift of the gravity centre immediately starts changing planet axis rotation, this forms two different areas of three types of soils.
The rotation axis displaces from 40 towards 140 in longitude, and approximately in 17-20 degrees in latitude.
Rotation axis change generates a local out-of-balance of bulk which are distributed elliptically with a difference in 21 kilometres between the polar and equatorial radiuses.

The third type of flooding: water as the most mobile substance, is the first, which indemnifies out-of-balance of bulk. It flows into other zones with a maximum in the northern part of the Atlantic Ocean and around Australia, and moves away from the previous equator zone with the greatest outflow in the northern part of the Pacific Ocean and the southern part of the Atlantic Ocean.

Fig. 16. The previous equator and directions of the water transfer

After the water transfer, the bulk of earth crust start to displace, keeping unity and the neighbourhood, as if it is dough. It is lifts the ocean bed in places, however the water level in oceans remains invariable by this time. Only the levels and borders of the closed basins change.

The fourth type of flooding: it happens in the basins of the Balkhash, the Aral Sea, the Caspian Sea, the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Sea. The shift of the Earth axis rotation provokes crust inclination caused by the difference between the polar and equatorial radiuses, it happens in Asia, from the east on the west. The Balkhash and the Aral Sea separate from the general basin, and the Khvalynsky basin is formed.
Synchronously there is an overflow of water from the Khvalynsky basin to the Black Sea. In consideration of throughput The Kuma–Manych Depression (31), the process lasted 21-22 years.
The Bosporus Strait and the Strait of Gibraltar are either overlapped at this time, or reduced in throughput because of the crust sinking, which happened during the flooding of shelves.
The similar process happens in the Great Basin in Nevada. It makes sense to estimate the inclination of the former surf band round the basins from the positions of this hypothesis.

The fifth type of flooding: In one of the models, the water in the Black Sea remained for about 20 years at the level of 100 metres above the current one, after that the basins of the Black and Mediterranean Seas joined. In the dominating theory, the salty water of the Mediterranean Sea filled up the light salted basin of the Black Sea. In the given hypothesis, it is not necessary as salty water came into the Black Sea from the Caspian. On the contrary, superfluous water from the Black Sea flowed into the Mediterranean Sea, that explains strongly the Black Sea type character of the sapropels at the bottom of the Aegean Sea (32).

Estimations of the difference between the present level of the Black Sea and the previous one differ and are in the limits of 40-100 metres.

The present area of the Black Sea is 422 thousand km2.
The difference of two last sea levels is from 40 to 100 metres.
The volume of the flowed water is 422000 * 40 (100) / 1000 = 17-42 thousand km3.

The present area of the Mediterranean Sea is 2500 million km2
The difference of two last sea levels is from 8 to 12 metres.
The volume of the arrived water is 2500000 * 8 (12) / 1000 = 20-30 thousand km3.

The volumes are comparable, and the main thing, it is clear, where the superfluous water flowed from the Black Sea, as the coastal line remained at the altitude of 40-100 metres.

Pseudo-flood: there are a lot of evident of incessant rains; these rains are also connected with the flood. But this connection is indirect. The hydrogen detonation already forms bulks of atmosphere moisture, but the process of hydrogen release still lasts 3.7 hours, and hydrogen ions are expected to bind to the appearing atmosphere oxygen extremely fast. Then in Central Asia and Nevada the water area will strongly increase, then volcanoes wake up, and all this process is accompanied by the growth of the moisture quantity in the atmosphere.

Shift of latitudes changes climatic zones and the direction of monsoons and trade winds. The savanna of the Sahara displaces to the south, and trade winds have not time to gather moisture on the way to the Sahara and Mexico any more. The Crimean Mediterranean and the Seaside subtropical fauna and flora become a relict. The western unit of the Caspian coast comes out of the zone of the Mediterranean climate and enters the continental climate zone.


The key problem – imperfection of the radiocarbon method used for age determination of close geological events, e.g. marine deposits. A method is gauged on artefacts with dates already determined in advance, so all chronology of the Ancient World is entirely doubtful. Therefore, the Sudanese mummies containing tracks of cocaine, which arrived at the markets at the end of the XIX century, have official age of 3100-1400 years old (33) that gives a difference, at least, in 14-30 time. Artefacts from the Egyptian tombs, sometimes bearing tracks of the European metalwork hammers of the beginning of the XX century, have official age of 3200 years old or more. And stubs from the cut yew wood, washed away by a strong gale at the village Bort, Wales, are dated from 5000 till 6000 years old (34), though the yew got economic value only in modern time.

In such situation, the age of the lowest horizon of sapropelic deposits of the Black Sea (35) can be dated not as 6800 years old, but about 230 years old. Such is general vision of a system problem of the radio carbon age determination.

The problem has the most direct relation to the history: shelves flooding of Black Sea is dated 5600 BC, and the necropolises which sunk together with the shelves - 4800 BC, (36) that is, for 800 years later. And this is only a particular case, in practice the level of distortion is 30 times as many.

The unconditional proof of that the accident occurred during historical time is the fixed climatic changes.

In 1849 The Great Basin in Nevada was full of salty lakes, nowadays, they have almost dried up, as well as the Aral Sea. In fact, Great Salt Lake and the Aral sea dry up synchronously. There is also a number of maps of the XVIII century with the image of Mer ou Baye de L'Ouest (the Western Sea), and it is obliged to exist synchronously with the Khvalynsky Sea.

Fig. 17. The Western Sea, 1753 (fragment)

That fact, that captains could not come nearer to the Aleutian Islands for a long time, is well explainable by the following idea. At first water actively flowed into the Arctic regions, supplying the loss and deficit of water over the shelves; and after the shift of the poles – away from the Arctic regions, compensating the centrifugal out-of-balance of the equatorial zones.

Ernan Cortes saw in Mexico of 1519 moist climate and advanced irrigation (37), and even in 1827 Mexico City was still located in the middle of a lake.

Fig. 18. Mexico City in 1827

Numerous document files are evidence of Central Asia prospering in the XIV century, and today we see the thrown or flooded (the Aral Sea, the Caspian Sea) cities.
An archeologist A. Fekri determined the exact period in which the quantity of moisture, arriving to Egypt along with seasonal rains, was sharply reduced, and the number of settlements decreased by far (38). Yes, this period is dated on habitual canons, however it is already considered as historical.
Fekri’s spouse, an archeologist as well, dated bonfire sites in Sahara from the hygrophilous acacia as the XV century. In the same XV century in Sudan rhinoceroses are fixed, and the savanna climate is necessary for this purpose.
In 1665 the city of Brighton sank in Southern England, in 1692 Port Royal sank, in 1696 the sea took a huge piece of land near the city of Sainte-Marie in France (36), and exactly at this period of time there appeared a series of pictures and engravings, devoted to unprecedented colds and the frozen Thames, - everything went precisely according to the scenario.
Iceland was blocked by pack ice with breaks from 1420 till 1822.

In the book “Sinking cities” at least 90 known cities are listed “from antiquity, the Middle Ages and later periods”, nowadays being under water at depth of 8-12 metres, as a rule, but in some places even deeper. Here are the cities that I managed to write out.

Adriatic Sea: Vibion, Matamautso, Spina, Epidaurum Illyricum.
Azov Sea: Taganrog.
West Indies: Port Royal.
Caspian Sea: Abaskun, Bandovan, Kegna- Bilgah, Naryn-Calais, Terki.
Easten Mediterranean: Gelica, Corinth, Peraeus, Gifion, Faros, Atlit, Kesaria, Caesarea, Vurgunda, Tristomo, Lefkos, Vachipotamos, Salamis, Mariumpolis, Pathos, Kurias, Amatos, Mohlos, Chersonesus , Panormus, Metallon, Amnisas, Moni Arvi, Elunda, Pseira, Spinalonga, Itanos, Kapa Plaka, Zakros, Ampelos, Sidon, Tyre, Apollonia, Ptolemaida, Tauchira, Arwad, Ajfuza, Thapsus
Western Mediterranean: Iol, Vaia, Pozzuoli, Misenum, Foz.
Black Sea: Appolonia, Dionisopolis, Mesembria, Odessos, Anakopia, Dioskuria-Sebastopolis, Geunessa, Fanagoria, Hermonassa-Tmutarakan, Tomis, Istria, Velaus, Kalos, Limen, Nymphaion, Panticapaeum, Sugdea, Feodosiya, Chersonesus-Korsun, Citea, Zephyrĭum, Acre, Pontic Olbia.
Aegean Sea: Pheia, Lorenzon, Kardamili, Minna, Tigani, Pilos, Calydon, Eritrea, Smyrna, Teos, Notium, Miletus, Bargylia, Andriasmira.
Southern England: Brighton, Dunwich (36).
The USA, Florida: St. Augustine (39).

These cities are mostly well known and widely presented in annals, but the history of their flooding, with rare exception, is not mentioned. The lacuna is explainable by fierce struggle between the church and the science, so the information about the floods, which supported political positions of clericals, judging by the results, simply were not taken into scientific consideration.
With the defeat of the leading diluvialist William Buckland, the geological facts received a different explanation, already based on the glaciation theory, and meanwhile, the division of these two schools is unfair. These cities could sink only in a close connection with glaciation, and statistic data about water rising are well coordinated with the data about cold snaps (40).

Fig. 19. Number of evidences of water rising and cold snaps in 1551-1690

Catastrophically fast transgression of the Caspian Sea, which destroyed Sarai City on the Volga (41), is directly described by the Italian authors and ascribed to the period of 1325-1330. Just in 1323, another falling of the Lighthouse of Alexandria was fixed. There were about ten of these fallings, that is, one event is spread in different epochs. Moreover, in 1323 the Mediterranean sea froze entirely as well. To cool this sea to such condition for the climatic reasons, tens years of cold snaps are required, but because of explosive heat selection after gas hydrates decay (in North Africa there are sizable reserves of oil) it could happen at once.
Once again, the Lighthouse of Alexandria fell in 365, and for 363 the evidence of flooding of Epidaurum Illyricum is pointed out. In the same period, in 361, 362 and 363 (dates from different sources) either the wind (obviously, the shock wave), or the case of explosion destroyed a Judaic temple, many antique cities collapsed, some tsunamis happened, and ships were thrown out on the land.
“The Pontic Bridge” ceased to exist. Probably, the Byzantine Bosporus is meant (42).
Socrat Scholastik … mentions a terrible earthquake of 365: “The seas changed their habitual limits; in some places it shook so strongly that there where people could walk earlier, now they can only float. In other places the sea tided back so far that the sea bottom became dry”. We see the description of the second and third types of flooding – hey are exact according to the scheme.
Since 437 until 1783, nine series of earthquakes were fixed, from 4 till 12 months running (43; 24; 44). Such duration is normal in the terms of the offered scheme.
Even in the XIX century, they used to find wood of species at the coast of Greenland, which grew only in Japan at that time (39). On the map Carta Marina of 1572 (45) there are submerged logs drawn near Greenland, and in the Baltic Sea - the sunk towers. It is clear that all these brightly painted maps are made much later, there is a great probability of fake, but there must be some historical facts behind them.

6255 from the World Creation, 755 AD … from the beginning of October the great and cruel cold came not only to our lands, but also both to the east, and the north and the west; so the northern part of the sea for hundred miles from the coast turned into stone for thirty pecha٭ into depth; and the same was from Zichia to the Danube, from the river Kufis to the Dniester and the Dnepr and to the Gate of Dead, from all other coast to Mesimvria and Media. When snow fell on such thick ice its thickness increased in twenty pecha … In February of 4th indiction this ice by God’s will divided into pieces, like high mountains, which were brought by a strong wind to Dafnusia and Ieron, and bulked closely to each other at the city up to Propontida and to the island of Abydos, filled all sea, to that we were eyewitnesses ourselves, thirty companions ascended to an ice floe and played there. There were both wild animals and livestock already dead … One ice floe put forward, hit a ladder of Akropolis and broke it. Another, the hugest, hit a wall so powerfully, that houses shook behind this wall. This ice floe, which rose above city walls, parted into three pieces and thus saved the city from Mangan to the Bosforus. All townspeople - the man and the woman and children - incessantly looked at this sight and came back home in tears and didn’t know what to tell about it. The same year in March multiple stars dropped from heavens, and everybody, looking at their falling, assumed the end of the present century … (24).

٭Pechon – 0.3123 m, 30 pecha – 9.37 m, 20 pecha – 6.25 m. Total ice thickness – 15.62 metres.
That fact that anomalously thick ice was formed in the north, but only for a hundred miles, indicates that the ice was generated by sludge ice, which had come through the Manych and the Azov. The snow, which had created 20 more pecha of ice, definitely consisted of that moisture that had been thrown into the atmosphere by the detonation and the accompanying phenomena. Dead wild animals and livestock got into the ice together with sludge ice blow.

The migration of peoples occurring just in those areas where shelves sank, - from Bulgaria to Holland, - receives a normal explanation.

The existing database (40) contains 29 thousand accidents and allows generating about 130 complete Doomsdays lasting, on the average, approximately seven years each. However, a lot of facts indicate that 90 % of these series are really duplicates of maximum ten important events, and this ten events are connected in one. A connection source: the sequence of the cataclysm development. At first was the flight of the meteor flow and the explosion, then darkness and rains, after that - the destruction of the Volga Horde, then flooding of shelves, then flooding of the Black Sea Coast and economic destruction of the Byzantine Empire, and only after that was the final part: the break of the Bosporus and the flooding of the Mediterranean cities with the definitive overflow of the capital into the Atlantic cities. It is clear that all this time volcanoes were erupting and there were storm surges, which gave a material for half of these 29 thousand historical evidences.
It lasted long enough, only the water overflow into the Black Sea took about 21-22 years, and the tracks of this accident scattered on the whole epoch are clearly observed at the very end of the XVIII century.

The direct evidence on the shift of the Earth rotation axis:
1783. Some scientists suspected that the axis of the Earth shifted. Inhabitants of Castleton in Derbyshire lived in the shade of a nearby mountain the most part of winter. They approved that the first sun that year came to their houses for some days earlier … and that the shade of their mountains became some metres shorter, than it should be in the middle of winter (46).

The evident evidence on calendar shift:
The shift of the Earth rotation axis should change the season of the year really quickly. As a result, the calendars ceased to satisfy the realities, and it is possible to estimate roughly, how much. The inclination of the Earth axis is 23.5 °. That is, the difference between winter and summer is 47 °. The pole, by my estimations, shifted for 15-20 °, let’s take 17,5 ° as the average, that makes … 17.5: 47 * 100 % = 37.2 % (of a half-year) or 68 days.

Some events in France of 1793 were repeated in 60-66 days (47) as if events were recorded in two systems of calendar calculation: standard and astronomical. For all 1793 the calendar shifted for 6 days (from 60 to 66), and if the rate remained the same, the mentioned 60 days it was shifting during 10 years. Just in 1783 in England axis shift for the first time was fixed. In first third of 1794 the axis shift should have come to the end.

Other approach to the estimation:
The fact of the axis shift should have been fixed quickly. Any priest should have paid attention that the temple was shined differently - not as usual at this time year. And the first reaction is: it means, now it is not April, 5th, but, judging by the sun, June, 11th. This is the reason of duplicates with the shift in 60-66 days appearing during the French revolution.
As Western Europe displaced to the south, the conclusion was drawn that the calendar shifted to summer. And in China on the contrary: it displaced to the north, and the conclusion was drawn that the calendar moved to winter. But the truth is that the calendar did not shift anywhere.
The number of the day depends on the position of the Earth on the orbit round the Sun, so as the date was April 5 earlier, so it remains the same now. Just characteristics of this April 5 have changed. Moreover, this is the fact that should be fixed quickly, within a year maximum. That is, the estimation of the beginning of the French shift in 1783 is incorrect, and it is necessary to search for an accident date maximum a year before the duplicates were found out. I think, it is Oran marine accident on October 8, 1792 (1790). The rotation axis of the Earth shifted quickly enough approximately for 60 days, and the remained 8 days was some kind of stabilization period.
Still, there is one nuance. I here base my calculations on the fact that the pole shifted exactly aside from the Sun but if it shifted at an angle, equinoxes should shift as well, and the calendar needs some correct anyway, for example, for those 12-13 days which were introduced by the Gregorian reform.

Concomitant circumstances:
After outstanding successes of seafarers and occurrence of the first overseas vegetables and fruit at court yard in 1770-1780 there was a pause, and mass attempts to cultivate or sell overseas cultures began only in 1815-1825. In the described scheme the pause receives the given above explanation.
Than the sudden destruction of ancient Ural metallurgy and notably small quantity of northern peoples (though their birth rate was not lower than in other regions and the resources for the development and are not exhausted yet even at present time) get the explanation.
The latitude orientation of settlement of the Slavic people becomes clear - from Czechia to Arkhangelsk; this band is orientated to the pole in Greenland that is connected with an optimum climatic zone for this type of culture managing. And a bit deeper to the south there is a band of the cattle-breeding people - with the same latitude orientation.
Dynamics of discovery of mammoths with flesh also indicates recent character of the accident: the number of expeditions increases, and frequency of findings decreases. It indicates the speed of remains decomposition process and rather recent term of dumping. It is very important that in 1902 of O. Gerts and E. Pfitsenmajer, zoologists from the Russian Academy of Sciences, fixed in meat of a mammoth the presence of fat layers (48). Today fat is not present: “… for thousand years in permafrost natural leaching fats took place, there was only fiber protein left” (49). Leaching rates indicate that it began, most likely, in the end of the XVIII century, than 8-9 thousand years ago as it is indicated by the radiocarbon method.

Therefore, leaching fats takes place in the permafrost, and in 1902, the fat layers in the mammoths meat were still present. The laboratory research will easily establish the real terms of fat leaching. It is necessary to compare them with the data of a radiocarbon method, and accuracy of the last one will significantly rise.

There are, at least, three maps of Crimea from 1750 until 1787 with a different geographical graticule, with differently orientated longitudes and latitudes; they are orientated to the pole in Greenland. Even if to assume that the graticule is orientated to a magnetic pole (and such practice is unknown), the arising error in 8-10 degrees seems improbable. These maps were found (50) during the period of half an hour, and, probably, there are a lot of them.

Fig. 20. Various orientation of a geographical graticule in the XVIII and XX centuries

The map of 1787 looks like a German copy of a Latin map of 1750, and here on the map of 1782 we see the merging of maps of a different origin: in the northern part, the graticule is modern, and the latitude of Ochakiv is intermediate.
A large quantity of cities plans of the XVIII century without graticules is orientated to the pole in Greenland as well.

There is one more package of documents: geodetic measurements of the Egyptian expedition of Bonaparte (1798). The commission under the supervision of engineer Lepère came to a conclusion that the water level of the Red Sea was 9.9 m higher in comparison with the water level in the Mediterranean Sea (51). It means that shelves had already become lower, but the Gibraltar did not manage water delivery, and the Bosporus was not split at that time yet, and the water of the Black did not flow down. This specific fact usually causes doubts, they write that Lepère made a mistake, but in the light of all other circumstances it is clear that Lepère reflected the existing fact. Therefore, the financiers of the families of Bardi and Peruzzi, working just when the Lighthouse of Alexandria collapsed, and the Mediterranean Sea froze, quite reasonably used financial tools of the end of a XVIII century.

Two maps disposed lower on the left have one common feature - absence of attempts to move nearer to the Black and Azov Seas, in spite the possibility to find fish, salt and the Byzantine merchants there. The same situation we see with the map of temples (on the right): there are no temples, built earlier the beginning of the XIX century or located lower this invisible line to the south. Distribution of the Magdeburg rights stopped at the same place. It is also the southern border of interests of The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and Bogdan Khmelnitsky. Moreover, there passes a surf line of Pleistocene times, with iron anchors on the hills.

Fig. 21. Sites of ancient settlement of the XIII century, cities of the XVI century, temples of the XIX century (52; 53; 54)

In the history of Russia of Ruriks’ times there are a lot of notifications about geographical closeness of Moscow to the Crimea and the Caucasus, - so as if there was one more Moscovia, down to the south. Tatars invade Moscow as if it is the nearest village, Chechens easily come to ask for the trade permission, and Ivan the Terrible becomes related to the Circassians. The history lacks the concept “Circumpontic Russia”, that is Russia that made contracts with the Byzantine coastal cities and, actually, and supplied them with things they traded. Only to such Russia Tatars could make horse campaigns in the middle of winter and send the loot taken in Kiev. It is assured that that Russia existed, approximately until those times when Terki sank at the Caspian Sea (1669), and in England the city of Brighton (1665) came down to the bottom. It was just flooded quickly enough, within 20 years, with the water of the Khvalynsky Sea arriving through the Manych.
Obviously, the borders of the Crimean princedom of Feodoro are located so as if the follow the water line on condition that the sea level was 100 metres higher. But there are also fortresses where the sea level changed for 2-3metres. The reason of different altitudes of a surf line is that the Black sea has passed through, at least, three of five kinds of flooding: a water-snow-soil mix during the last ballistic shock wave, as a result of shelves sinking and the overflow through the Manych, caused by the crust inclination.

I will give only two dated citations.
April 8, 1783. Catherine II’s manifesto about joining of the Crimean peninsula, Taman Island with the Kuban area to Russia.
On December 4, 1783 Catherine II with her Decree enjoined to create "the Commission for investigation of the ancient history, mainly of Russia" under the supervision of count A.P. Shuvalov".

The idea about the shifts of the Earth axis is mentioned in every epoch and even attributed to Aristotle. Karl Fridrich More ("Hystory of the Earth. Geology on new bases", 1868) writes: “… these great, of sudden origin, but not gradual changes in the soil bulk consistently depositing from water, are considered by geologists as consequences of those events, which name is shifts of the Earth axis. Though it is hard to say something definite about their nature, but nevertheless their existence is doubtless” (55).
I’m sure that the shift took place – one-time and tightly connected with the space trauma and temporary obtaining of three various moments of inertia. In addition, I am also assured that the shift was much less dangerous, than a trauma itself; such shift had only compensatory effect. And if the reason of the meteor shower occurrence was the impact destruction of a celestial body, chances to meet the same level of effect of a flow, in view of its dispersion, are not already possible.

The season had changed - exactly for half a year. The sun, which had ascended as in summer, would already go down to the horizon as in winter. Alternatively, on the contrary, for the Earth surface observer it could look like the Sun "halt". Here are some suitable historical evidences:

On April 24, 1547, the miracle of Jesus son of Naue happened ostensibly again in the period of reign of Charles V during the battle of Malberg (the Sun stopped).
On October 24, 1541, there was a terrible storm, a shower and an earthquake near Algeria, Charles V's army was damaged.

The difference is exactly in half a year, and the difference in 6 years means usage of two different Byzantine scales of chronology and error in one year happens because of the shift of the beginning of year.

The Romans year began in March. A question where this March was fixed. For a peasant the boundary is the harvesting time; after collecting it, he gives taxes and plans all next year. For the authorities the harvesting time is just the same boundary as well: only after collecting and evaluating it they can understand, whether it is possible to begin a war. Moreover, the main thing is that all of them need to live not only until the spring, but also until the next the harvesting time. The harvest in Europe is collected by September the main cultures just grow ripe at this time. Therefore, the New Year is quite reasonable to start on September 1.

HYPOTHESIS: the former March was in September. For this reason it is impossible to attach Latin names of months distinctly to seasons, etiologically they mean anything, but only not the characteristics of seasons. In addition, triple transfer of the beginning of the year in Russia from March to September is extremely interesting.

1348. The church council in Moscow, which proposed that it was necessary to begin a year from September, instead of March.
1425. Every year began from March; but during the reign of Grand duke Vasiliy Dmitrievich, ended in 1425, the calendar beginning was changed to September.
1492. Transfer of the beginning of the calendar year in Russia from March 25 to September 1.

In case of shift of seasons for half a year nobody begins to change names of months and to force down the smooth scheme – it is senseless. It is more logical to expect those decrees that appeared - about transfer of the beginning of the year (that is, the harvest taxation) to September. Triple transfer is a well-known principle of the chronology lengthening: for certain, all three sovereigns corrected the calendar during one period. Otherwise, it is necessary to search for decrees with a return orientation of the calendar transfer.

The national calendar, probably, moved names immediately, and the month of leaf fall moved there when this process happens. It is impossible to change the administrative calendar adopted in other languages - because of international contacts, for example.

There is an intolerantly large quantity of artefacts contradicting scientific canons: gold chains, silver vessels, concrete blocks and bronze bells found in the layers of coal or sandstone, they are all within hearing. There are also evidences about meetings with mammoths - in the XVI century, and later. The tabloids are full of them. But there is a more serious system cross-disciplinary conflict between history and all relevant sciences - from statistics to paleontology. Mistakes should be corrected. The society normally endured the change of historical paradigms after 1986, it can easily endure this one as well.

 The author's theory including the chapters concerning bacteriological nature of the Black Death and the cause of the medieval mass psychoses.


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(электронные ресурсы, дата обращения 21.03.2017)

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Труды Восемнадцатой Международной научной конференции
Москва, 21 - 22 апреля 2017 г.
Часть II
ББК 71.05
УДК 008
Ц 58
Цивилизация знаний: проблемы и смыслы образования: в 2 ч.
Труды Восемнадцатой Международной научной конференции, Москва,  21-22 апреля 2017 г. / под ред. Н.С.Келлина – М.: РосНОУ, 2017. – Ч. II. – 400 с.

ISSN 1998-4588 Издательство Российского нового университета

UDC: 504,  523.6,  549,  550.2,  550.3,  550.4,  551.24,  551.32,  551.4,  551.58,  551.7,  556.5,  56,  902,  904,  930.2,  94
Stages of a comet catastrophe
Andrei G. Stepanenko
Abstract. The history of the flight of comets near the Earth needs reconsideration.
Key words. Meteor shower, electromagnetic pulse, vacuum channel, shock wave, sublimation, gas hydrate, oil, coal, shelf, explosion, Nevada, the Caspian Sea, the Mangyshlak, the Black Sea, the Mediterranean Sea, transgression, regression, trade winds, glacial boulders, moraine, mammoth, Pleistocene fauna, glaciation, glacier, cetaceans, marine fauna, sedimentary rocks, permafrost formation, pole shift, climate change, radiocarbon method, cooling, Circassians.
Data about the author:
Stepanenko Andrei Georgievich, Maikop, the project "Civilization", a writer.
Contact information. E-mail: a.g.stepanenko@gmail.com